Here you will find the most recent research related to necrotizing enterocolitis:


As you all are aware, few years back, SIGNEC along with NEC Society USA and IPGG, Brazil designated 17th May as the Global NEC Awareness day.


Please share details about any relevant teaching, training, research or improvement work you and your teams have been involved with in relation to improving outcomes for babies at risk of NEC.


We would love to showcase and share through our website and social media channels any particular events that you have organised on Global NEC Awareness Day, especially those involving children and families.


While some improvements have been made in the last few years, a lot more needs to be done to improve outcomes for children with NEC as well as the experience of parents.


Together we can and will make a difference.


Wishing you all the best


Minesh –


Please have a look below at some of the key research articles published on NEC in the last 12 months or so:


Nutrition in Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Following Intestinal Resection.

Ou J, Courtney CM, Steinberger AE, Tecos ME, Warner BW.

Nutrients. 2020 Feb 18;12(2):520. doi: 10.3390/nu12020520.

PMID: 32085587 Free PMC article. Review.


Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Kim W, Seo JM.

N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2461. doi: 10.1056/NEJMicm2020782. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

PMID: 33314871 No abstract available.


The Role of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Probiotics on the Neonatal Microbiome and Risk of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Narrative Review.

Nolan LS, Rimer JM, Good M.

Nutrients. 2020 Oct 6;12(10):3052. doi: 10.3390/nu12103052.

PMID: 33036184 Free PMC article. Review.


Effects of Liberal vs Restrictive Transfusion Thresholds on Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants: The ETTNO Randomized Clinical Trial.

Franz AR, Engel C, Bassler D, Rüdiger M, Thome UH, Maier RF, Krägeloh-Mann I, Kron M, Essers J, Bührer C, Rellensmann G, Rossi R, Bittrich HJ, Roll C, Höhn T, Ehrhardt H, Avenarius S, Körner HT, Stein A, Buxmann H, Vochem M, Poets CF; ETTNO Investigators.

JAMA. 2020 Aug 11;324(6):560-570. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.10690.

PMID: 32780138 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.


The Therapeutic Potential of Breast Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

Galley JD, Besner GE.

Nutrients. 2020 Mar 11;12(3):745. doi: 10.3390/nu12030745.

PMID: 32168961 Free PMC article. Review.


The Impact of Human Milk on Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Altobelli E, Angeletti PM, Verrotti A, Petrocelli R.

Nutrients. 2020 May 6;12(5):1322. doi: 10.3390/nu12051322.

PMID: 32384652 Free PMC article.


Effects of Probiotics in Preterm Infants: A Network Meta-analysis.

Chi C, Li C, Buys N, Wang W, Yin C, Sun J.

Pediatrics. 2021 Jan;147(1):e20200706. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-0706. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

PMID: 33323491


The Paneth Cell: The Curator and Defender of the Immature Small Intestine.

Lueschow SR, McElroy SJ.

Front Immunol. 2020 Apr 3;11:587. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00587. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 32308658 Free PMC article. Review.


Enteral lactoferrin supplementation for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

Pammi M, Suresh G.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 31;3(3):CD007137. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007137.pub6.

PMID: 32232984 Free PMC article.


S100A8 and S100A9 Are Important for Postnatal Development of Gut Microbiota and Immune System in Mice and Infants.

Willers M, Ulas T, Völlger L, Vogl T, Heinemann AS, Pirr S, Pagel J, Fehlhaber B, Halle O, Schöning J, Schreek S, Löber U, Essex M, Hombach P, Graspeuntner S, Basic M, Bleich A, Cloppenborg-Schmidt K, Künzel S, Jonigk D, Rupp J, Hansen G, Förster R, Baines JF, Härtel C, Schultze JL, Forslund SK, Roth J, Viemann D.

Gastroenterology. 2020 Dec;159(6):2130-2145.e5. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.019. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

PMID: 32805279


[Clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (2020)].

Evidence-Based Medicine Group.

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2021 Jan;23(1):1-11. doi: 10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2011145.

PMID: 33476530 Free PMC article. Chinese.


Lysosomal overloading and necrotizing enterocolitis.

Yamoto M, Alganabi M, Chusilp S, Lee D, Yazaki Y, Lee C, Li B, Pierro A.

Pediatr Surg Int. 2020 Oct;36(10):1157-1165. doi: 10.1007/s00383-020-04724-x. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

PMID: 32740829


Contemporary Outcomes for Infants with Necrotizing Enterocolitis-A Systematic Review.

Jones IH, Hall NJ.

J Pediatr. 2020 May;220:86-92.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.11.011. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

PMID: 31982088


Breast Milk Lipids and Fatty Acids in Regulating Neonatal Intestinal Development and Protecting against Intestinal Injury.

Ramiro-Cortijo D, Singh P, Liu Y, Medina-Morales E, Yakah W, Freedman SD, Martin CR.

Nutrients. 2020 Feb 19;12(2):534. doi: 10.3390/nu12020534.

PMID: 32092925 Free PMC article. Review.


Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Updates on Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes.

Flahive C, Schlegel A, Mezoff EA.

J Pediatr. 2020 May;220:7-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.12.035. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

PMID: 31955884 No abstract available.


Characterization of the pathoimmunology of necrotizing enterocolitis reveals novel therapeutic opportunities.

Cho SX, Rudloff I, Lao JC, Pang MA, Goldberg R, Bui CB, McLean CA, Stock M, Klassert TE, Slevogt H, Mangan NE, Cheng W, Fischer D, Gfroerer S, Sandhu MK, Ngo D, Bujotzek A, Lariviere L, Schumacher F, Tiefenthaler G, Beker F, Collins C, Kamlin COF, König K, Malhotra A, Tan K, Theda C, Veldman A, Ellisdon AM, Whisstock JC, Berger PJ, Nold-Petry CA, Nold MF.

Nat Commun. 2020 Nov 13;11(1):5794. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-19400-w.

PMID: 33188181 Free PMC article.


Clinical features and management of post-necrotizing enterocolitis strictures in infants: A multicentre retrospective study.

Liu W, Wang Y, Zhu J, Zhang C, Liu G, Wang X, Sun Y, Guo Z.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 May;99(19):e20209. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000020209.

PMID: 32384517 Free PMC article.


Development of the NEC-Zero Toolkit: Supporting Reliable Implementation of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Prevention and Recognition.

Gephart SM, Newnam K, Wyles C, Bethel C, Porter C, Quinn MC, Canvasser J, Umberger E, Titler M.

Neonatal Netw. 2020 Jan 1;39(1):6-15. doi: 10.1891/0730-0832.39.1.6.

PMID: 31919288 Review.


Probiotics Reduce Mortality and Morbidity in Preterm, Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials.

Morgan RL, Preidis GA, Kashyap PC, Weizman AV, Sadeghirad B; McMaster Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Synbiotic Work Group.

Gastroenterology. 2020 Aug;159(2):467-480. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.096. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

PMID: 32592699 Free PMC article.


Probiotic Supplementation During the Perinatal and Infant Period: Effects on Gut Dysbiosis and Disease.

Navarro-Tapia E, Sebastiani G, Sailer S, Toledano LA, Serra-Delgado M, García-Algar Ó, Andreu-Fernández V.

Nutrients. 2020 Jul 27;12(8):2243. doi: 10.3390/nu12082243.

PMID: 32727119 Free PMC article.


Necrotizing enterocolitis and its association with the neonatal abstinence syndrome.

Andrews L, Davies TH, Haas J, Loudin S, Heyward A, Werthammer J.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2020;13(1):81-85. doi: 10.3233/NPM-180154.

PMID: 32280068 Free PMC article.


Differentiation of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates by abdominal sonography.

Guo Y, Si S, Jia Z, Lv X, Wu H.

J Pediatr (Rio J). 2021 Mar-Apr;97(2):219-224. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2020.03.001. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

PMID: 32277871


Translational Advances in Pediatric Nutrition and Gastroenterology: New Insights from Pig Models.

Burrin D, Sangild PT, Stoll B, Thymann T, Buddington R, Marini J, Olutoye O, Shulman RJ.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci. 2020 Feb 15;8:321-354. doi: 10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-115142.

PMID: 32069436 Review.


Exploring the Role of Gut Bacteria in Health and Disease in Preterm Neonates.

Lee JK, Hern Tan LT, Ramadas A, Ab Mutalib NS, Lee LH.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 23;17(19):6963. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17196963.

PMID: 32977611 Free PMC article. Review.


Protective effects of different doses of human milk on neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

Zhang B, Xiu W, Dai Y, Yang C.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Sep 11;99(37):e22166. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022166.

PMID: 32925782 Free PMC article. Review.


Long-term outcomes of severe surgical necrotizing enterocolitis.

Han SM, Knell J, Henry O, Riley H, Hong CR, Staffa SJ, Modi BP, Jaksic T.

J Pediatr Surg. 2020 May;55(5):848-851. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.01.019. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

PMID: 32085915


Melatonin ameliorates necrotizing enterocolitis by preventing Th17/Treg imbalance through activation of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway.

Ma F, Hao H, Gao X, Cai Y, Zhou J, Liang P, Lv J, He Q, Shi C, Hu D, Chen B, Zhu L, Xiao X, Li S.

Theranostics. 2020 Jun 19;10(17):7730-7746. doi: 10.7150/thno.45862. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 32685016 Free PMC article.


Cytotoxin-producing Klebsiella oxytoca in the preterm gut and its association with necrotizing enterocolitis.

Paveglio S, Ledala N, Rezaul K, Lin Q, Zhou Y, Provatas AA, Bennett E, Lindberg T, Caimano M, Matson AP.

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1):1321-1329. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1773743.

PMID: 32525754 Free PMC article.


Global incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: a systematic review and Meta-analysis.

Alsaied A, Islam N, Thalib L.

BMC Pediatr. 2020 Jul 13;20(1):344. doi: 10.1186/s12887-020-02231-5.

PMID: 32660457 Free PMC article.


Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Multi-omic Approach and the Role of the Microbiome.

Neu J.

Dig Dis Sci. 2020 Mar;65(3):789-796. doi: 10.1007/s10620-020-06104-w.

PMID: 32008132 Review.


Targeted inhibition of thrombin attenuates murine neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

Namachivayam K, MohanKumar K, Shores DR, Jain SK, Fundora J, Everett AD, He L, Pan H, Wickline SA, Maheshwari A.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 May 19;117(20):10958-10969. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1912357117. Epub 2020 May 4.

PMID: 32366656 Free PMC article.


Safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

Liu D, Shao L, Zhang Y, Kang W.

Int J Surg. 2020 Apr;76:79-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.031. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

PMID: 32109650


Remote ischemic conditioning counteracts the intestinal damage of necrotizing enterocolitis by improving intestinal microcirculation.

Koike Y, Li B, Ganji N, Zhu H, Miyake H, Chen Y, Lee C, Janssen Lok M, Zozaya C, Lau E, Lee D, Chusilp S, Zhang Z, Yamoto M, Wu RY, Inoue M, Uchida K, Kusunoki M, Delgado-Olguin P, Mertens L, Daneman A, Eaton S, Sherman PM, Pierro A.

Nat Commun. 2020 Oct 2;11(1):4950. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-18750-9.

PMID: 33009377 Free PMC article.


Progressive Metabolic Dysfunction and Nutritional Variability Precedes Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Sinclair TJ, Ye C, Chen Y, Zhang D, Li T, Ling XB, Cohen HJ, Shaw GM, Stevenson DK, Chace D, Clark RH, Sylvester KG.

Nutrients. 2020 Apr 30;12(5):1275. doi: 10.3390/nu12051275.

PMID: 32365850 Free PMC article.


Protocol-Driven Surgical Care of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation.

Quiroz HJ, Rao K, Brady AC, Hogan AR, Thorson CM, Perez EA, Neville HL, Sola JE.

J Surg Res. 2020 Nov;255:396-404. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.05.079. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

PMID: 32615312


Urinary I-FABP, L-FABP, TFF-3, and SAA Can Diagnose and Predict the Disease Course in Necrotizing Enterocolitis at the Early Stage of Disease.

Coufal S, Kokesova A, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H, Frybova B, Snajdauf J, Rygl M, Kverka M.

J Immunol Res. 2020 Mar 3;2020:3074313. doi: 10.1155/2020/3074313. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 32190704 Free PMC article.


Changes of intestinal microflora in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: a single-center study.

Duan M, Han Z, Huang N.

J Int Med Res. 2020 Sep;48(9):300060520957804. doi: 10.1177/0300060520957804.

PMID: 32967507 Free PMC article.


Early Use of Antibiotics Is Associated with a Lower Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm, Very Low Birth Weight Infants: The NEOMUNE-NeoNutriNet Cohort Study.

Li Y, Shen RL, Ayede AI, Berrington J, Bloomfield FH, Busari OO, Cormack BE, Embleton ND, van Goudoever JB, Greisen G, He Z, Huang Y, Li X, Lin HC, Mei J, Meier PP, Nie C, Patel AL, Sangild PT, Skeath T, Simmer K, Uhlenfeldt S, de Waard M, Ye S, Ye X, Zhang C, Zhu Y, Zhou P.

J Pediatr. 2020 Dec;227:128-134.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.032. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

PMID: 32553865


Intestinal tract and parenteral multi-organ sequential pathological injury caused by necrotizing enterocolitis.

Wang FS, Yu ML, Li WZ, Hong K, Xu CB, Wang GH.

BMC Pediatr. 2020 Sep 2;20(1):418. doi: 10.1186/s12887-020-02304-5.

PMID: 32878600 Free PMC article.


Dysregulated Mucosal Immunity and Associated Pathogeneses in Preterm Neonates.

Sampah MES, Hackam DJ.

Front Immunol. 2020 May 15;11:899. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00899. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 32499778 Free PMC article. Review.


Trends in incidence and outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis over the last 12 years: A multicenter cohort analysis.

Han SM, Hong CR, Knell J, Edwards EM, Morrow KA, Soll RF, Modi BP, Horbar JD, Jaksic T.

J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Jun;55(6):998-1001. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.02.046. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

PMID: 32173122


Probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm or very low birth weight infants.

Sharif S, Meader N, Oddie SJ, Rojas-Reyes MX, McGuire W.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Oct 15;10(10):CD005496. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005496.pub5.

PMID: 33058137


An invited commentary on: “Safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis” [Int. J. Surg. (2020); Epub ahead of print].

Pitak-Arnnop P.

Int J Surg. 2020 May;77:36-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.03.021. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

PMID: 32200058 No abstract available.


Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis through Milk Polar Lipids Reducing Intestinal Epithelial Apoptosis.

Yang Y, Zhang T, Zhou G, Jiang X, Tao M, Zhang J, Zeng X, Wu Z, Pan D, Guo Y.

J Agric Food Chem. 2020 Jul 1;68(26):7014-7023. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c02629. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

PMID: 32515192


Cerebral Oxygenation in Preterm Infants With Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Howarth C, Banerjee J, Leung T, Eaton S, Morris JK, Aladangady N.

Pediatrics. 2020 Sep;146(3):e20200337. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-0337.

PMID: 32848028


ROCK1 inhibitor stabilizes E-cadherin and improves barrier function in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

Buonpane C, Yuan C, Wood D, Ares G, Klonoski SC, Hunter CJ.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 Apr 1;318(4):G781-G792. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00195.2019. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

PMID: 32090605 Free PMC article.


Impact of Developmental Age, Necrotizing Enterocolitis Associated Stress, and Oral Therapeutic Intervention on Mucus Barrier Properties.

Lock JY, Carlson TL, Yu Y, Lu J, Claud EC, Carrier RL.

Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 21;10(1):6692. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63593-5.

PMID: 32317678 Free PMC article.


Maternal breastmilk, infant gut microbiome and the impact on preterm infant health.

Granger CL, Embleton ND, Palmer JM, Lamb CA, Berrington JE, Stewart CJ.

Acta Paediatr. 2021 Feb;110(2):450-457. doi: 10.1111/apa.15534. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

PMID: 33245565 Review.


Cronobacter sakazakii induces necrotizing enterocolitis by regulating NLRP3 inflammasome expression via TLR4.

Chen Z, Zhang Y, Lin R, Meng X, Zhao W, Shen W, Fan H.

J Med Microbiol. 2020 May;69(5):748-758. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001181. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

PMID: 32209170


Short-chain fatty acid butyrate, a breast milk metabolite, enhances immature intestinal barrier function genes in response to inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

Gao Y, Davis B, Zhu W, Zheng N, Meng D, Walker WA.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2021 Apr 1;320(4):G521-G530. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00279.2020. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

PMID: 33085904


Profile analysis reveals endogenous RNAs regulate necrotizing enterocolitis progression.

Xu Y, Liu Y, Xie H, Zhou Y, Yan X, Chen W, Wang X, Yu Z, Wang F, Chen X, Wang J, Han S.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 May;125:109975. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.109975. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

PMID: 32036223


Implementation of bowel ultrasound practice for the diagnosis and management of necrotising enterocolitis.

Alexander KM, Chan SS, Opfer E, Cuna A, Fraser JD, Sharif S, Khashu M.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2021 Jan;106(1):96-103. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-318382. Epub 2020 May 12.

PMID: 32398270 Free PMC article. Review.


The Role of Glycosaminoglycans in Protection from Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Narrative Review.

Burge K, Bergner E, Gunasekaran A, Eckert J, Chaaban H.

Nutrients. 2020 Feb 20;12(2):546. doi: 10.3390/nu12020546.

PMID: 32093194 Free PMC article. Review.


Beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal injury.

Liu J, Zhu H, Li B, Lee C, Alganabi M, Zheng S, Pierro A.

J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Jun;55(6):1088-1093. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.02.036. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

PMID: 32234318


Lactate and intestinal fatty acid binding protein as essential biomarkers in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis: ultrasonographic and surgical considerations.

El-Abd Ahmed A, Hassan MH, Abo-Halawa N, Abdel-Razik GM, Moubarak FA, Sakhr HM.

Pediatr Neonatol. 2020 Oct;61(5):481-489. doi: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.03.015. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

PMID: 32336643


Necrotising enterocolitis in newborns receiving diazoxide.

Prado LA, Castro M, Weisz DE, Jain A, Belik J.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2021 May;106(3):306-310. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319057. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

PMID: 33172872


Necrotising enterocolitis-A 15-year outcome report from a UK specialist centre.

Calvert W, Sampat K, Jones M, Baillie C, Lamont G, Losty PD.

Acta Paediatr. 2021 Feb;110(2):495-502. doi: 10.1111/apa.15510. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

PMID: 32740983


Saccharomyces boulardii modulates necrotizing enterocolitis in neonatal mice by regulating the sirtuin 1/NF‑κB pathway and the intestinal microbiota.

Zhang K, Zhang X, Lv A, Fan S, Zhang J.

Mol Med Rep. 2020 Aug;22(2):671-680. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2020.11138. Epub 2020 May 7.

PMID: 32626966 Free PMC article.


Lactobacillus Acidophilus/Bifidobacterium Infantis Probiotics Are Beneficial to Extremely Low Gestational Age Infants Fed Human Milk.

Fortmann I, Marißen J, Siller B, Spiegler J, Humberg A, Hanke K, Faust K, Pagel J, Eyvazzadeh L, Brenner K, Roll C, Pirr S, Viemann D, Stavropoulou D, Henneke P, Tröger B, Körner T, Stein A, Derouet C, Zemlin M, Wieg C, Rupp J, Herting E, Göpel W, Härtel C.

Nutrients. 2020 Mar 22;12(3):850. doi: 10.3390/nu12030850.

PMID: 32235769 Free PMC article.


[Effect of low-dose dopamine adjuvant therapy on inflammatory factors and prognosis in preterm infants with necrotizing enterocolitis].

Tan YJ, Tan CR, Tang M, Liu Y, Yu YJ.

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2020 Feb;22(2):136-140. doi: 10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2020.02.010.

PMID: 32051080 Free PMC article. Chinese.


Human breast milk oligosaccharides attenuate necrotizing enterocolitis in rats by suppressing mast cell accumulation, DPPI activity and TLR4 expression in ileum tissue, and regulating mitochondrial damage of Caco-2 cells.

He-Yang J, Zhang W, Liu J, Xue P, Zhou X.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Nov;88:106881. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106881. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

PMID: 32795899


Probiotics for Preventing Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants: A Network Meta-Analysis.

Beghetti I, Panizza D, Lenzi J, Gori D, Martini S, Corvaglia L, Aceti A.

Nutrients. 2021 Jan 9;13(1):192. doi: 10.3390/nu13010192.

PMID: 33435456 Free PMC article.


[Association of interleukin-23 receptor and interleukin-17 single nucleotide polymorphisms with necrotizing enterocolitis in Chinese Han preterm infants].

Zhang Y, Li K.

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2020 Feb;22(2):141-145. doi: 10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2020.02.011.

PMID: 32051081 Free PMC article. Chinese.


Gastric Residual to Predict Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Piglets As Models for Infants.

Kappel SS, Sangild PT, Hilsted L, Hartmann B, Thymann T, Aunsholt L.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2021 Jan;45(1):87-93. doi: 10.1002/jpen.1814. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

PMID: 32100882


Parent and Provider Perspectives on the Imprecise Label of “Human Milk Fortifier” in the NICU.

Canvasser J, Hair AB, Kim JH, Taylor SN.

Nutrients. 2020 Mar 9;12(3):720. doi: 10.3390/nu12030720.

PMID: 32182782 Free PMC article.


Evaluation of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in surgical infants for necrotizing enterocolitis.

Zeng S, Li X, Deng C, Li L, Guo C.

Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Jan;99(2):e18539. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000018539.

PMID: 31914027 Free PMC article.


Erythropoietin prevents necrotizing enterocolitis in very preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

Wang Y, Song J, Sun H, Xu F, Li K, Nie C, Zhang X, Peng X, Xia L, Shen Z, Yuan X, Zhang S, Ding X, Zhang Y, Kang W, Qian L, Zhou W, Wang X, Cheng X, Zhu C.

J Transl Med. 2020 Aug 8;18(1):308. doi: 10.1186/s12967-020-02459-w.

PMID: 32771013 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.


Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Rats.

Yu RQ, Wang M, Jiang SY, Zhang YH, Zhou XY, Zhou Q.

Biomed Res Int. 2020 Sep 2;2020:5150869. doi: 10.1155/2020/5150869. eCollection 2020.

PMID: 32934961 Free PMC article.


Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV signaling pathway is upregulated in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

Alganabi M, Zhu H, O’Connell JS, Biouss G, Zito A, Li B, Bindi E, Pierro A.

Pediatr Surg Int. 2020 Mar;36(3):271-277. doi: 10.1007/s00383-019-04615-w. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

PMID: 31950358


Association of initial empirical antibiotic therapy with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis.

Rina P, Zeng Y, Ying J, Qu Y, Mu D.

Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;179(7):1047-1056. doi: 10.1007/s00431-020-03679-4. Epub 2020 May 18.

PMID: 32424744


Parenteral lipid emulsions induce unique ileal fatty acid and metabolomic profiles but do not increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

Yakah W, Singh P, Brown J, Stoll B, Burrin D, Premkumar MH, Otu HH, Gu X, Dillon ST, Libermann TA, Freedman SD, Martin CR.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2021 Feb 1;320(2):G227-G239. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00311.2020. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

PMID: 33236951 Free PMC article.


Antenatal magnesium sulfate treatment and risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation.

Hong JY, Hong JY, Choi YS, Kim YM, Sung JH, Choi SJ, Oh SY, Roh CR, Kim HS, Sung SI, Ahn SY, Chang YS, Park WS.

Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 30;10(1):12826. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-69785-3.

PMID: 32733081 Free PMC article.


Another Brick in the Wall: Discovering the Role of Necroptosis in Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Mcelroy SJ.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;9(3):549-550. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.12.001. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

PMID: 31904352 Free PMC article. No abstract available.


Hypoxic/ischemic hits predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis in (near) term infants with congenital heart disease: a case control study.

van der Heide M, Mebius MJ, Bos AF, Roofthooft MTR, Berger RMF, Hulscher JBF, Kooi EMW.

BMC Pediatr. 2020 Dec 7;20(1):553. doi: 10.1186/s12887-020-02446-6.

PMID: 33287760 Free PMC article.


Development of an improved murine model of necrotizing enterocolitis shows the importance of neutrophils in NEC pathogenesis.

Klinke M, Vincent D, Trochimiuk M, Appl B, Tiemann B, Reinshagen K, Pagerols Raluy L, Boettcher M.

Sci Rep. 2020 May 15;10(1):8049. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-65120-y.

PMID: 32415172 Free PMC article.


Fecal microbiota transplantation by enema reduces intestinal injury in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

Liu J, Miyake H, Zhu H, Li B, Alganabi M, Lee C, Pierro A.

J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Jun;55(6):1094-1098. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.02.035. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

PMID: 32234317


Intravenous pentoxifylline is well tolerated in critically ill preterm infants with sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis.

Schüller SS, Kempf K, Unterasinger L, Strunk T, Berger A.

Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Aug;179(8):1325-1330. doi: 10.1007/s00431-020-03612-9. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

PMID: 32179980


Integrated analysis of a lncRNA‑mRNA network reveals a potential mechanism underlying necrotizing enterocolitis.

Chen W, Yan X, Tian T, Yan R, Wang X, Yu Z, Li Y, Zhang L, Han S.

Mol Med Rep. 2020 Jul;22(1):423-435. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2020.11083. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

PMID: 32319640 Free PMC article.


Vitamin D protects against necrotising enterocolitis in newborn mice by activating the ERK signalling pathway.

Lyu C, Jiang S, Kong M, Chen X, Zhang L.

Mol Med Rep. 2020 Sep;22(3):2107-2114. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2020.11286. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

PMID: 32705172


Pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis: The impact of the altered gut microbiota and antibiotic exposure in preterm infants.

Raba AA, O’Sullivan A, Miletin J.

Acta Paediatr. 2021 Feb;110(2):433-440. doi: 10.1111/apa.15559. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

PMID: 32876963 Review.


Changes of long non-coding RNA expression profiles in intestinal tissues from neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

Pan Z, Wu R, Li Y, Tian Z.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2020 Sept 28;45(9):1035-1043. doi: 10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2020.190657.

PMID: 33051416 Chinese, English.


A significant decrease in hemoglobin concentrations may predict occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants with late-onset sepsis.

Cai N, Fan W, Tao M, Liao W.

J Int Med Res. 2020 Sep;48(9):300060520952275. doi: 10.1177/0300060520952275.

PMID: 32962507